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Learning Disabilities Association of Kentucky, Inc.
2210 Goldsmith Lane #118
Louisville, KY 40218
    (502) 473-1256      

877-587-1256
Email: Info@LDAofKY.org   OR  LDAofKY@yahoo.com

Larry Silver Powerpoint Notes from June 20, 2014 Presentation

CHANGES TO THE DSM-5 CONCERNING ADHD AND LD!

The Learning Disabilities Association of Kentucky, Inc. is a non-profit organization of individuals with learning differences and attention difficulties, their parents, educators, and other service providers. This organization has been a continuous voice in this state for those who learn differently since 1966.

The goals of LDA are:

  • to embrace the challenge to educate the general public on the characteristics of learning disability, attention deficit disorder, dyslexia, etc.
  • to support parents of the individuals with learning differences through information sharing and support.
  • to make available to professionals information that will assist them as service providers; and
  • to provide direct services that will assist those who learning differently become more productive, independent, and self-motivated contributors to society.

What is a Learning Disability?

A learning disability is a permanent disorder which affects the manner in which individuals with normal or often above average intelligence acquire, retain, and express information. Such difficulties in processing information can significantly interfere with academic and/or social development. Like interference on the radio or a blurry TV picture, incoming or outgoing information may become jumbled as it travels between the senses and the brain.


Learning disabilities are usually recognized as a difficulty in one or more of these areas: reading, comprehension, spelling, written expression, handwriting, mathematics, oral expression, and/or problem solving. A person with learning disabilities may also have perceptual difficulties. It is important to remember that no two people with learning disabilities have the same profile of strengths and weaknesses.


Learning disabilities are often not consistent. While the disability does not ever go away, it might well manifest itself more strongly in certain settings and/or academic areas. For instance, a student might have troubles in grade school that seem to disappear in high school and then  return in college. A person with a learning disability might also find that his/her disability is restricted to one area, like math or foreign languages.

Learning disability is not a generic term for having a “special need” in school, even though it is often used that way. It is NOT autism, cerebral palsy, sensory impairment (vision or hearing loss), mental retardation, social or emotional disturbance. These factors can all hinder the learning process, but are not defined as learning disabilities.


Types of Learning Disabilities


• ADD/ADHD
• Dyslexia
• Dyscalculia
• Dysgraphia
• Dyspraxia
• Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD)

ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (ADD/ADHD)


AD(H)D is a disorder characterized by inappropriate degrees of attention, impulsiveness, and/or hyperactivity. Although these areas are considered to be core symptoms, all three characteristics are not necessarily present in those affected. Symptoms are generally first manifested early in childhood and may persist in varying degrees throughout adult life. The difference between ADD and ADHD is the absence or presence of hyperactivity.


Attention deficit disorders are commonly found in the difficulty with sustaining attention and focusing on information for long periods of time. AD(H)D is a medical diagnosis (LD is an educational one), and people diagnosed with AD(H)D are often prescribed medication to stabilize attention and activity levels.


Common Learning Disabilities


Dyslexia is a reading disability typified by problems in expressive or receptive, oral or written language. Problems may emerge in reading, spelling, writing, speaking, or listening. People with dyslexia often show talent in areas that require visual, spatial, and motor integration.


Dyscalculia causes people to have problems with arithmetic and grasping mathematical concepts. While many people have problems with math, a person with dyscalculia has a much more difficult time solving basic math problems than his or her peers.


Dysgraphia is a writing disorder that causes people to have difficulty forming letters or writing within a defined space. People with this disorder need extra time and effort to write neatly. Despite their efforts, their handwriting may be almost illegible.


Dyspraxia is a problem with the body's system of motion that interferes with a person's ability to make a controlled or coordinated physical response in a given situation


Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is a permanent disorder which affects the manner in which people understand or remember words or sounds due to a language processing problem in the brain. Parents and doctors can often mistake this as a hearing problem. However, CAPD causes problems with processing and memorizing information, not with actually hearing the information.

Dyslexia is a "specific learning disability" according to IDEA 2004

NCLB Results for Kentucky 2011